Increased resistance to passive movement due to a disorder in the central nervous system is called spasticity. Spasticity occurs in the muscles of patients with brain and spinal cord injuries after a loose period. The location and severity of spasticity varies according to the location and extent of the lesion in the central nervous system. Spasticity inhibits voluntary muscle control and disrupts balance and gait. Spasticity in the arms may impair the arm and hand functions, making daily life activities difficult or impossible.
Appropriate bed position and exercise are used in the treatment of spasticity. Training is provided to ensure the participation of patients and their relatives in the treatment. Physical therapy applications such as local cold application, electrical stimulation and biofeedback are performed. Exercises are organized and if necessary, devices are utilized. Spasticity reducing drugs (such as baclofen, diazepam, tizanidine) is given. Local injection (e.g., local anesthetics, phenol, alcohol, botulinum toxin, intrathecal baclofen) is administered. In case of excessive spasticity, some surgical techniques are utilized.